The science behind Outcome Referrals’ services started more than twenty years ago.
The following diagnostic publications illustrate the TOP’s outstanding factor structure and sensitivity to change.
- Kraus, D.R., Seligman, D.A., & Jordan, J.R. (2005). Validation of a behavioral health treatment outcome and assessment tool designed for naturalistic settings: The Treatment Outcome Package. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 285-314.
- Kraus, D.R., Boswell, J.F., Wright, A.G. Castonguay, L.C., & Pincus, A.L. (2010). Factor structure of the Treatment Outcome Package for children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 627-640.
- Kraus, D. R., & Castonguay, L. G. (2010). TOP: Development and use in naturalistic settings. In M. Barkham, G.E. Hardy, & J. Mellor-Clark (Eds.), Developing and delivering practice-based evidence (pp. 155-174). London: Wiley Press.
- Baxter, E.E., Alexander, P.C., Kraus, D.R., Bentley, J.H., Boswell, J.F., & Castonguay, L.G. (2016). Concurrent validation of the Treatment Outcome Package (TOP) for children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1-8.
Most clinicians see patients with whom they are effective as well as patients with whom they are reliably ineffective or even harmful. It is only when we better assess and match a patient’s problems (e.g., Major Depression) with a clinician who is reliably effective in treating that problem that we can double the chances of successful treatment and bring down total healthcare costs.
- Kraus, D.R., Castonguay, L.G., Boswell, J.F., Nordberg, S.S., & Hayes, J.A. (2011). Therapist effectiveness: Implications for accountability and patient care. Psychotherapy Research, 21, 267-276.
- Kraus, D.R., Castonguay, L.G., Hayes, J.A. & Barber, J.P. (2010). The empirically supported therapist: All clinicians have strengths and weaknesses. Psychologie Quebec, 1, 12-15.
- Zack, S.E., Castonguay, L.G., Boswell, J.F., McAleavey, A.A., Adelman, R., Kraus, D.R., & Pate, G.A. (2015). Attachment history as a moderator of the alliance outcome relationship in adolescents. Psychotherapy, 52, 258-267.
- Kraus, D.R., Bentley, J.H, Alexander, P.C., Boswell, J.F., Constantino, M.J., Baxter, E.E., & Castonguay, L.G. (2016). Predicting therapist effectiveness from their own practice-based evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(6), 473.
Built by and for providers, TOP and its reporting and quality improvement roadmaps help providers document and improve the quality of care.
Outcome Referrals celebrates the unique strengths of each clinician. 96% of clinicians document at least one area of expertise and more than 50% have five or more areas of documented expertise.
- Youn, S. J., Castonguay, L. G. & Kraus, D. R. (2012). The Treatment Outcome Package: Facilitating practice and clinically relevant research. Psychotherapy, 49(2), 115-122.
- Kraus, D.R., Wolfe, A., & Castonguay, L.G. (2006). The outcome assistant: A kinder philosophy to the management of outcome. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 41, 23-31.
According to Robert Wood Johnson, 8% of the population has both chronic medical and psychiatric problems. This population is consuming 54% of healthcare dollars in the US. When these patients’ problems are successfully addressed, their total cost of care is reduced by an average of 20%.
- Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2011). Mental disorders and medical comorbidity (Research Synthesis Report No. 21).
- Chiles, J.A., Lambert, M.J., Hatch, A.L. (1999). The impact of psychological interventions on medical cost offset: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 204-220.
- Castonguay, L.G., Boswell, J.F., ,Constantino, M.J., Goldfried, M.R., & Hill, C.E. (2010). Training implications of harmful effects of psychological treatments. American Psychologist, 65, 34-49.