The Science of Outcome Referrals and Related Publications

A Bit of History
The science behind Outcome Referrals’ Red Zone Services started more than twenty years ago. This overview highlights that science and categorizes ten scientific papers listed on this download page. Six of the ten papers have David R. Kraus, Chief Scientific Officer of Outcome Referrals, as the lead author.
The Largest Problem – The Red Zone (3 papers)
Healthcare’s largest cost problem will be surprising to most people, especially people inside the healthcare field. Robert Wood Johnson has provided an excellent synopsis of individuals in the Red Zone – the 8% of the population that have both chronic medical and psychiatric problems and are consuming 54% of healthcare dollars in the US. These individuals are too depressed to get out of bed and take their medication appropriately, or too anxious to focus on reducing their stress and preventing another heart attack. When these patients’ problems are successfully addressed, their total cost of care is reduced by an average of 20%.
Best Outcomes (2 Papers)
Most clinicians see clients with whom they are effective as well as clients with whom they are reliably ineffective or even harmful. It is only when we better assess and match a specific Red Zone client's problems (e.g., Major Depression) with a clinician who is reliably effective in treating that problem that we can double the chances of successful treatment and bring down total healthcare costs.

Unlike other behavioral health outcome assessment tools, the Treatment Outcome Package (TOP) is multi-dimensional and measures 24 different dimensions of health, quality of life and functional states such as work functioning.
Diagnostics (3 Papers)
At the heart of the Red Zone Services is the TOP – a suite of behavioral health outcome assessment tools. TOP has been in use for more than fifteen years, has been translated into seven languages, and is available for adult, child and adolescent populations. As can be seen by the three sample diagnostic publications, there may be no other outcome tool with a better factor structure or better sensitivity to change data.
Provider Friendly (2 Papers)
Built by and for providers, TOP and its reporting and quality improvement roadmaps help providers document and improve the quality of care. As just one example, these roadmaps have helped one of our customers earn JCAHO’s highest quality improvement award – The Codman Award.

The Red Zone Services approach celebrates the unique strengths of each clinician. 96% of clinicians document at least one area of expertise and more than 50% have five or more areas of documented expertise. Red Zone Services help them identify their strengths and focus their practice where they can more than double their outcomes and help a greater percentage of their patients.